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污水处理技术工艺

农村生活污水处理现状的调查和对策研究

发布日期:2019-05-18 / 发布者:鸿淳环保科技 / 点击:

JINNIANLAI,SUIZHENONGCUNJINGJIDEFAZHAN,NONGMINSHENGHUOSHUIPINGDAFUDUTIGAO,NONGCUNJICHUSHESHIHESHENGHUOHUANJINGFASHENGLEHENDABIANHUA。TONGSHI,NONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUIPAIFANGLIANGYEZAIBUDUANZENGJIA。JUYOUGUANTONGJI,DAO2020NIAN,WOGUONONGCUNWUSHUIPAIFANGLIANGYUJIJIANGDADAO270YIDUN。ZHUANJIAMENZUOLESHIYAN,DECHUJIELUN:YIGERENDEPAIXIEWUYITIANKEYISHI5DUNSHUIBUKEYINYONG,JIANG5DUNSHUIJINGHUACHENGYINYONGSHUIXUYAO10DAO12YUAN。NEIME,CHULI270YIDUNWUSHUIXUYAODUOSHAOQIANNI?NEIJIANGSHIYIGEJINGRENDESHUZI。HUANJINGBAOHUSHIQUANSHEHUIDESHI。BUJINCHENGSHI,NONGCUNYEYAOZHONGSHIHUANJINGBAOHU。

YOUYUDABUFENNONGCUNDIQUMEIYOUPAISHUITONGDAO,WUSHUICHULIXITONGDEWUSHUICHULILVJIAODI,DABUFENJIATINGWUSHUIBEISUIJIZHIJIEPAIRUHEZHONGHUOCONGKONGDIPAIFANG。ZAIRENYISHENRUHOU,YIXIAOBUFENDIXIASHUIJIANDANDIYOUHUAFENCHICHULI,BINGSHENRUDIXIASHUI。YINCI,SHENGHUOWUSHUIYICHENGWEINONGCUNSHUIWURANDEZHUYAOWURANYUANZHIYI,NONGCUNHUANJINGZHUANGKUANGBUDUANEHUA,NONGCUNHUANJINGZHILIANGDEXIAJIANGZHIJIEWEIXIEZHEGUANGDANONGMINDESHENGHUOHUANJINGHESHENTIJIANKANG,ZHEIZHIYUELENONGCUNJINGJIDEJIANKANGFAZHAN。NONGCUNHUANJINGZHUANGKUANGLINGRENDANYOU。

YINCI,ZUOHAONONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIGONGZUO,JIANGZHIJIEGAISHANNONGCUNSHENGTAIHUANJING,TIGAONONGMINSHENGHUOSHUIPING,JIAKUAISHEHUIZHUYIXINNONGCUNJIANSHE,CUJINNONGCUNJINGJISHEHUIDEKECHIXUFAZHAN。

YI、NONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIXIANZHUANGFENXI。

(a)NONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUIDELAIYUAN。

SHENGHUOWUSHUISHIRENMENRICHANGSHENGHUOPAIFANGDESHUI。YOUJIATINGCHUFANG、YUSHI、YUSHI、XIYIFANGHECANTING、GONGGONGSHESHIHEGONGCHANGPAIFANG。TONGGUOZOUFANGNONGMINHEXIANCHANGDIAOCHA,FAXIANNONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUIZHUYAOLAIYUANYUNONGMINRICHANGYINSHI、XIDI、PAIXIE、SHENGHUOLAJIDESUIYICHUZHI、JIATINGQINCHUFENBIANPAIFANG、YUSHUICHONGSHUADENG。ZHEIXIEWURANWUDELAIYUANKEFENWEI:NONGMINRICHANGSHENGHUOPAIFANGDESHENGHUOWUSHUI;JIACHUYANGZHICHANSHENGDEWUSHUI;YUSHUICHONGSHUACHANSHENGDEWUSHUIZHUYAOSHILAJICHANSHENGDEWUSHUIHEYUSHUICHONGSHUADIMIANDEWUSHUI。

(ER)NONGCUNWUSHUICHULIDEXIANZHUANG。

NONGMINRICHANGSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULILVDI,SUIYIPAIFANGLIANGDA。NONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUI、CHUQINFENBIANHECHUQINYANGZHIFEISHUIJIBENMEIYOUCHULI,ZHIYOUYIXIEJIATINGHUAFENCHITONGGUOJIANDANDEPAISHUIQUDAOPAIRUFUJINDEGOUQUHUOHELIU。SHENGHUOWUSHUIDEZHIJIEPAIFANGZAOCHENGLEHELIUHESHUIKUDEWURAN,YINGXIANGLECUNMINDESHENGHUOHUANJING,DUINONGMINDEJIANKANGGOUCHENGLEQIANZAIDEWEIXIE。

(3)NONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIXIANZHUANGDEYUANYIN。

YOUYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:DIYI,DADUOSHUCUNMINDEHUANJINGYISHIBORUO,DUISHENGHUOWUSHUIDEWEIHAIXINGQUEFALEJIE。ERSHINONGCUNGUIHUABUZU,WUSHUIFENBUFENSAN,SHEJIMIANGUANG,SUIYI,YUFANGFEICHANGKUNNAN。JINGSHOUJIXITONGBUWANSHAN,DALIANGPAIFANGJIBENMEIYOUWUSHUICHULISHESHI;SANSHIXIANGZHENJINGJISHILIXIANGDUIBORUO。ZHENGFUDUINONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULITOURUJIAOSHAO,NONGCUNWUSHUICHULIXITONGQUEFA,NONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULILVDI;NONGCUNHUANBAOJIGOUBUJIANQUAN,QUEFAZHUANYEDEHUANBAORENCAI。HUANJINGBAOHUGONGZUOTONGCHANGYOUCUNGANBUGUANLI。GUONEIHUANJINGWURANDEPAIFANGHEWURANWENTIRIYITUCHU。DIWU,SHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIDECHENGBENGAO,BINGQIENANYICUJINCHULIGUOCHENG。

ER、SHENGHUOWUSHUIDEWEIHAI

WEIJINGCHULIDESHENGHUOWUSHUIBUJINBUNENGDANDUSHIYONG,ERQIEJUYOUJILIANXIAOYING。WULUNLIUXIANGHECHU,DOUHUIWURANNEILIDESHUI、TURANGHEWUTI。QIWEIHAIXINGZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAILIANGGEFANGMIAN:YIFANGMIANDUIRENTIJIANKANGYOUHAI。ZHIJIEPAIFANGSHENGHUOWUSHUIZAOCHENGGOU、HE、TANGWURAN,YANZHONGYINGXIANGCUNMINSHENGHUOHUANJING,WEIXIENONGMINJIANKANG。ZHUANJIAYANJIUBIAOMING,SHUIYUXUDUOJIBINGDEFASHENGMIQIEXIANGGUAN。YUSHUIYOUGUANDESHANGHAN、HUOLUAN、CHANGWEIYAN、LIJI、CHUANRANXINGGANBINGDENGWUZHONGRENLEIJIBINGDOUSHIYOUSHUIDEZAZHIYINQIDE。YOUQISHIRENCHUFENBIANWURAN。YOUYURENCHUFENBIANZHONGHANYOUZHIXUEXICHONGBINGHEGOUDUANLUOXUANTIBINGDEBINGYUANJUN,QIDUISHUIHEHUANJINGDEWURANBIXIDIHECHUFANGCHANSHENGDESHENGHUOWUSHUIGENGWEIYANZHONG。TASHIDAOZHINONGCUNLIUXINGBINGLIUXINGDEZHONGYAOYINSU。YINCI,RUGUOSHUISHOUDAOWURAN,JIANGYANZHONGWEIHAIRENLEIJIANKANG。YINYONGSHUIRUGUOSHOUDAOBINGYUANFENBIAN、HUAFEI、NONGYAO、GONGYEHESHENGHUOWUSHUIDEWURAN,YINYONGHOUKENENGGANRANGEZHONGJIBING,CHAOGUOYIDINGLIANGHAIHUIYINQIZHONGDU。CIWAI,SHENGHUOWUSHUIDEPAIFANGWURANLESHUITI,ZENGJIALEWENYINGCHUANBOJIBINGDEJIHUI。WEILEYUFANGJIBING,ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANG,WOMENYINGGAICONGWUSHUICHULIKAISHI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,TAPOHUAILESHENGTAIHUANJING。NONGCUNCUNMINJIANGCHONGXIWUSHUIHECESUOWUSHUIZHIJIEPAIRUFUJINDEGOUQU、HELIU、CHITANGDENGSHUITI。YOUJIWUZAIFEISHUIZHONGDEZHIJIERONGJIEDAOZHISHUIZHONGDAN、LIUHELINDEHANLIANGJIAOGAO。ZAIYANYANGWEISHENGWUDEZUOYONGXIA,YICHANSHENGLIUHUAQING、LIUCHUNDENGYOUWEIWUZHI。SHENGHUOWUSHUIPOHUAISHUITIDESHENGTAIHUANJING,WEIHAIRENLEIDESHENGHUOHUANJING。

SAN、CHULINONGCUNDIQUSHENGHUOWUSHUIDEBIYAOXING

NONGCUNWUSHUIRENYIPAIFANG,DAOZHINONGCUNHUANJINGWEISHENGEHUA,WEICHULILIYONGDEFENBIANHEGELEIWUSHUIYANZHONGWURANTURANG、DIBIAOSHUIHEDIXIASHUI,YANZHONGYINGXIANGJUMINYINSHUIHESHENGHUOYONGSHUIANQUAN。ZHEIYEYANZHONGYINGXIANGLENONGMINSHENGHUOZHILIANGDETIGAO。SUIZHEJINGJIDEKUAISUFAZHAN,NONGCUNHUANJINGWURANWENTIRIYITUCHU,LAJICHULI、WUSHUICHULIDENGWENTIDEDAOLEKEXUEDEJIEJUE,WEINONGCUNDEKECHIXUFAZHANZUOCHULEGONGXIAN,YESHIJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIXINNONGCUNDEXUYAO。ZHENDUINONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULI,CHULECAIYONGXIANJINDEWUSHUICHULIFANGFAWAI,HAIXUYAODONGYUANGEFANGMIANLILIANGJIYUZHICHIHETUIGUANG,NONGCUNWUSHUICHULISHIZAIBIXING,HAIYOUHENZHANGDELUYAOZOU。

DISI,NONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIDUICEYUJIANYI

WEILEJIANSHAOSHENGHUOWUSHUIDUIRENTIHEHUANJINGDEWEIHAI,WOMENKEYICONGYIXIAJIGEFANGMIANZHESHOUYANJIUCHULISHENGHUOWUSHUIDEDUICE。

(1)JIAQIANGNONGCUNSHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUXUANCHUAN,TIGAONONGMINHUANBAOYISHI。QUNZHONGBUJINSHIHUANJINGWURANDESHENGCHANZHE,YESHIHUANJINGWURANDESHOUHAIZHE,YESHIHUANJINGZHILIDESHOUYIZHE。YINCI,ZHENGFUBIXUJIAQIANGDUIHUANJINGBAOHUDEXUANCHUAN,TONGGUODIANSHI、GUANGBODENGSHOUDUAN,BATATUIGUANGDAONONGCUN、SHEQUNAIZHIMEIYIGENONGMINJIATING,SHITAMENSHENKEDIRENSHIDAOBAOHUNONGCUNSHENGTAIHUANJINGSHIWEILEBAOHUTAMENDEJIANKANG,BAOHUTAMENSUOSHENGHUODEJIAYUANSHIWEILEBUSHIHEZIJIHEHOUDAI。

(ER)WANSHANNONGCUNHUANJINGGUANLIJIGOU,ZHIDINGNONGCUNHUANJINGBAOHUFALV、FAGUI。GEXIANGZHENJUNZAIDIFANGZHENGFUDELINGDAOXIAJIANLILEHUANJINGBAOHUZHONGXIN(ZHAN),FUZEBENXINGZHENGQUYUNEIHUANJINGBAOHUDEJIANDUGUANLI。GECUNMINGUANLIWEIYUANHUIYINGDANGPEIBEIFUZEBENCUNHUANJINGBAOHUGUANLIDERENYUAN。JISHIBAOGAOHEJIAOLIUHUANJINGXINXIHEXINXI。ZAIWANSHANNONGCUNHUANJINGGUANLITIZHIDETONGSHI,NONGCUNHUANJINGBAOHUGONGZUOBIXUYIFAZHIWEIJICHU,ZAIWOGUOXIANXINGFAZHIZHONG,YUNONGCUNHUANJINGBAOHUMEIYOUDUODAGUANXI,JISHIYOU,TAJINXIANYUYUANZEGUIDING。NONGCUNBAOHU、NONGYEBAOHUHEZIYUANBAOHUBUXIANGTONGYI。ZHIDINGNONGCUNHUANJINGBAOHUFA,JIYAOMINGQUEYOUGUANJIGOUDEZHINENG,YOUYAOMINGQUEYOUGUANGUANLITIZHI。YINCI,WOMENJIANYIJINKUAIZHIDINGNONGCUNHUANJINGBAOHUDEFALVFAGUI。

(SAN)ZHENGFUYAOJIAQIANGCUNZHUANGGUIHUA,JIADADUINONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIXITONGJIANSHEDEZIJINTOURU。MUQIAN,NONGCUNCUNZHENJIANSHEQUEFAXITONGKEXUEDEGUIHUA,DABUFENLAOCUNFANGWUJIANSHEHUNLUAN,DAOLUHEWUSHUIPAIFANGXITONGBUCHANGTONG,BUFENJUMINFENSANJUZHU。SHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIYIZHISHIZHIYUENONGCUNHUANJINGGAISHANDEYIXIANGJIANJURENWU,QIYUANYINZHIYISHIQUEFASHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIXITONGHEWUSHUICHULIXITONGJIANSHETOUZI,CUNJITINANYICHENGSHOUJIANSHE。YINCI,ZAIXINNONGCUNJIANSHEGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHENGFUYINGJIAQIANGNONGCUNJIANSHEGUIHUA,JIANGDAOLUJIANSHEHESHENGHUOWUSHUIXITONGDEJIANSHENARUCUNZHUANGGUIHUA,BINGZAIYIDUANSHIJIANNEISHISHIXINNONGCUNJIANSHE。ZHUBUGAISHANNONGCUNRENJUHUANJINGMIANMAO,LIYONGYILIANGDAISHIJIANKEYICHEDIGAIBIANNONGCUNPINKUNLUOHOUMIANMAO,TONGSHI,XIANGZHENYAOJIADADUINONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIXITONGJIANSHEHESHENGHUOLAJIQINGLIYUNSHUGUANLIDEZIJINTOURU。CIWAI,YAOZHIDINGCUNGUIMINYUE,JIAQIANGNONGCUNSHENGHUOLAJIGUANLI,JINZHIJIANGSHENGHUOLAJISUIYIDUIFANGHUOQINGDAODAOCUNQIANGOUQUHELIUZHONG。JIANYICUNZHENTOUZIJIANGLAJITONGFENJIMEIHURENJIA,RANGNONGMINBASHENGHUOLAJIDAOJINLAJITONG,MEIGECUNZUYAOXUANZEYIMINGHUANWEIGONGRENLAIYUNSHULAJI,MEIGECUNDOUYAOSHELIYIGELINSHIDELAJIZHAN。MEIGECUNZHUANGDOUYINGGAIYOUSHIDANGDERENYUANLAIQINGLIGOUQUHEHELIUSHANGDELAJI。GEXIANGZHENYAOSHELIZONGHELAJICHULICHANG,PEIBEILAJIYUNSHUCHE,JIANGCHENGZHENSHENGHUOLAJIYUNWANGLAJICHULICHANGJIZHONGCHULIHUOLAJIHUISHOULIYONG。FANGZHIJIANGSHENGHUOLAJIZHIJIERENGJINGOUQUHEHELIUWURANHELIU。

(4)YINDIZHIYIDICHULINONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUI。ZHENDUIZHANGQIYILAIXINGCHENGDENONGCUNFENBU、SHENGHUOXIGUANHEJINGJITIAOJIANDENGFANGMIANDECHAYI,ZHUANJIAMENTICHU,NONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIBIXUYINDIZHIYI,CAIQUDUOYANGHUADEWUSHUICHULIFANGSHI。SHUIYUANBAOHUQUNEIDEDANYICUNHUOLIANCUN,YOUYUQIBUJUXIANGDUIMIJI、GUIMODA、JINGJITIAOJIANHAO,CAIYONGJIZHONGCHULIFANGSHI,JIZHONGSHOUJISUOYOUNONGMINCHANSHENGDEWUSHUI,JIANCHENGCHULISHESHI,TONGYICHULICUNNEISUOYOUWUSHUI,CONGERDADAOZHANDIMIANJIXIAO、YUNXINGANQUANKEKAODEMUDE。CHUSHUISHUIZHIXIAOGUOLIANGHAO。

(5)DUIYUSHENGHUOFENSANDENONGCUNJIATING,KEYICUJIN“SANJIJINGHUA”YONGYUNONGCUNWUSHUICHULI。ZAINONGCUNDIQU,YIXIENONGMINZAIFANGWUHOUMIANJIANZAOLEYIGESHUINIJIANZAODEYOUYONGCHI,MEIGEYOUYONGCHIDEMIANJIWEI2-3LIFANGMI。GAIJISHUSHIYONGXIAOLUANSHIHESHAFANMUTANTONGGUOZHENGHECHENDIAN,SHENGWUHUAXUEHEQINGJIESHUIDESANCHICHISHENGWUHUAXUECHULIWUSHUI。GENXIFADADEZHIWUHEZHIWUXISHOUWUSHUIZHONGFENJIEDEYOUJIWU。WEIJINGHUAWUSHUI,WUSHUIJINGCHULIFUHEGUOJIAWUSHUIPAIFANGBIAOZHUN。ZHEIGE“SANJIJINGHUA”SHENGHUOWUSHUICHULISHESHIDETEDIANRUXIA:SHOUXIAN,TABUSHOUDIXINGXIANZHI,KEYIDANDUJIANZAO,YEKEYIYIQIJIANZAOJIGEJIATING;DIER,TOUZIBUDA;SANSHICAOZUOWEIHUJIANDAN,MEI2 - 3NIANQINGXIYICI;SISHIJINGCHULIDEWUSHUIKEYIJIAOSHUIHEZHONGZHI,FEICHANGSHIHEFENSANDENONGHU。

(6)YANYANGCHIYUSANJIJINGHUAXIANGJIEHE。YANYANGRENGONGSHIDIWUSHUICHULIFANGFADEZHUYAOYUANLISHIJIANGWUSHUIZAIYANYANGCHIZHONGFAJIAOHOU,ZAIYOURENGONGSHIDIZHONGDEMEIRENJIAODENGZHIWUFADAGENXIXISHOU,CHULINONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUI。YOUYUWUSHUIZHONGDEYOUJIWUSHOUXIANTONGGUOYANYANGFAJIAOFENJIECHENGERYANGHUATANHESHUI,ERLINGYIBUFENHANDAN、ANSHUIDEFUZHIZHIHENIZEZHONGZHIZAISHIDIZHONG,ZAISHIDIZHONG,JIANGMEIRENJIAO、CONG、CHANGPUDENGGENXIFADA、SHIRUN、XISHOUNENGLIQIANGDEZHIWU“GUOLV”HOUPAIFANG。SHENGHUOWUSHUI。JULEJIE,YIXIEDIFANGCAIYONGZHEIZHONGFANGFACHULISHENGHUOWUSHUI,NIANCHULIFEIYONGDADAO50DUOWANDUN,SHIFEICHANGXIAODE。

(QI)JIAQIANGZHIDAO,JIJITUIJINNONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUIZHILI,JIANGCESUOGAIZAO、CHUFANGGAIZAOHEZHAOQICHIJIANSHEJIEHEQILAI。GENJUTONGYICUNJIGUIHUA,MEIHUSHOUJIDEWUSHUIHEFEISHUIYOUYIGEHUODUOGEGUANDAOSHOUJI,SHIYONG1CHENDIAN→ZHAOQICHI→LVCHI→RENGONGSHIDI2CHENDIAN→ZHAOQICHI→LVCHI→NONGTIANHUOGUOYUANDENG。3CHENDIAN→ZHAOQICHI→LVCHI→YUTANGDENGFANGFAJINXINGYANYANGFAJIAO、YOUYANGGUOLV、ZHIWUHUOSHUISHENGDONGWUXISHOUDENGFANGFA。

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JIANADApcYUCEGUANWANGYIZHIYUGUONEIZHUMINGZHUANYESHEJIYUANJINMIHEZUO,YONGYOUYIPIJUYOUFENGFULILUNZHISHIHESHIJIANJINGYANDESHUICHULIZHUANJIA,JINGZHANGQIDEJISHUYANFAHEJINGYANJILEI,CHENGGONGYANFACHUDUOXIANGWUSHUICHULIDEZHUANLIJISHU,ZAISHIJIDEYUNYONGZHONGQUDELIANGHAODEXIAOGUOHEKOUBEI。WOMENDETUANDUIYONGYOUGENGZHUANYEDEWUSHUICHULIGONGCHENGSHEJI、FANGANDINGZHINENGLI,SHEBEIDECAIGOU、ANZHUANGDIAOSHIJIYUNXINGGUANLIYIZHANSHIJIEJUEKEHUWUSHUICHULINANTI。